The Republic of Niger stretches across multiple regional conflict systems. Its proximity to Mali has resulted in frequent cross-border attacks by non-state armed groups emanating from northern Mali, particularly Jama'a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin' (JNIM) and the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS). The country has also been impacted along its southern border by the spread of Boko Haram and Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) from Nigeria. Non-state armed groups have taken advantage of general instability, longstanding ethnic differences between communities in the region, and increasing herder-pastoralist conflict to entrench themselves, while the country's porous borders, low levels of development, and high poverty rates make addressing the drivers of conflict difficult.

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